Moving Towards Psychotherapy Integration: A Student’s Perspective

Moving towards psychotherapy integration: A student’s perspective

Nili Solomonov

I’m a psychology trainee, taking my first strides on the path towards becoming a clinical psychologist. I am discovering what type of psychologist I want to be, an exploratory process some of you might find familiar.

This journey involves everything I do: my academic studies, my clinical work, and the direction of my research. As a psychotherapy researcher, I study various theoretical approaches, and identify similarities and differences between treatment modalities. In my own research, I explore therapeutic processes and techniques that are used by different therapeutic approaches.

The further I progress in my training, the more I identify with psychodynamic theory, practice, and research. Seemingly paradoxically, however, the more I learn, the more I also see myself as being open to integrating approaches, e.g., cognitive, behavioral, interpersonal, emotion-focused, and common factors techniques.

Studying integrative psychotherapy, I find that other professionals in the field are going through the same process. A growing body of evidence documents the failures of each specific orientation to benefit all clinical populations, and many therapists are transitioning away from rigidly defined treatment models towards integrative approaches to therapy (Norcross, 2005; Castonguay, Reid, Halperin, & Goldfried, 2003). Surveys show that most counselors and psychotherapists who adhere to a specific model nevertheless report that integrative approaches have become a significant source of influence on their therapeutic work (McLeod, 2009).

As a trainee, I am learning that there is value to finding a clinical and theoretical framework in which one feels “at home” – an approach that most often helps one to conceptualize one’s client’s problems and formulate a treatment plan. I am also learning about the importance of going on intellectual journeys and exploring other perspectives, and am constantly seeking ways to enrich my experience. I consult supervisors from different approaches; I am learning to try to think of my clinical cases using multiple points of view, and to experiment with integration of techniques from different approaches. These explorations tend to be exhausting, pushing me to my limits, and challenging me to think flexibly about my work. When I get tired, I return to my secure base – my psychodynamic home. After resting for a while, I encourage myself to go out and explore again.

I hope to see a shift in our field, such that different psychotherapies are not enemies, and do not compete against each other, constantly trying to determine the winners and losers. In my ideal world, these seemingly competing approaches are complementary – a world where cognitive, psychodynamic, interpersonal, and behavioral therapists work together to try to find the best treatment for the client, without allowing personal interests and dogma to get in the way.

We, the trainees, are the ones who are going to determine the future of clinical psychology. We will conduct the most contemporary research, train and supervise the next generation of students, and continue to treat evolving clinical populations. I think that our goals should include an increased collaboration, facilitation of free and open interdisciplinary discussion, and that we should spend every day finding opportunities to learn from each other.



Castonguay, L.G., Reid, J.J., Jr., Halperin, G.S., & Goldfried, M.R. (2003). Psychotherapy integration. In G. Stricker & T.A. Widiger (Eds.), Handbook of psychology: Clinical psychology (Vol. 8, pp. 327–366). New York: John Wiley & Sons Inc.

McLeod, J. (2009). An introduction to counseling (4th ed.). New York, NY: Open University Press.

Norcross, J. C. (2005). A primer on Psychotherapy Integration. In J. C. Norcross, & M. R. Goldfried (Eds.) Handbook of psychotherapy integration (2nd ed.) (pp. 3-23). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

1 thought on “Moving Towards Psychotherapy Integration: A Student’s Perspective

  1. Lindsay Anmuth says:

    This was a great topic, Nili, and one that I’ve also thought a lot about. I was trained in CBT in my clinical counseling masters program but then entered a doctoral program that was integrative. We were actually taught to be integrative in all classes and at all times. It was a unique program. Today, I am an intern at the VA and I am seeing that there are psychologists here who belong to one single school of thought, but most are integrative in some way even if they do not actually label themselves as such. I think the professional field is moving toward integrative; however, the clinical scientists/researchers often advocate for a single theoretical approach because that is where all of the research support lies. In order for our field to truly become integrative, either the professional psychologists are going to have to start providing more data for why integrative is a better approach or the clinical scientists are going to have to recognize that we are moving that way for a reason and that they should start to adjust their manuals.


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